A Multi-tiered System of Supports (MTSS) is a framework designed to ensure successful educational outcomes for ALL students. The MTSS “Umbrella” encompasses instruction and intervention for student academic and behavioral needs, but it also includes professional development opportunities and collaboration with communities and families to inform the development of structures, supports, and resources utilized within the school. A MTSS framework uses a data-based, problem-solving process to inform instruction and intervention across three tiers to increase the academic, behavioral, emotional, and life skills of students. Instruction and intervention within each tier are standards-aligned, data-informed, and research-based. The tiers represent increasingly intensive, supplemental interventions based on the academic and/or behavioral needs of each student.
Data-Based Problem Solving
A successful MTSS framework requires the use of data to make informed decisions about student instruction and intervention at every level. This process is called Data-based problem solving and is utilized across content areas, grade-levels, and tiers. This process includes four steps:
- defining what students should know and be able to do (including comparisons of expected and current levels of performance)
- identifying possible reasons why students are not meeting expectations
- developing and implementing a plan based on evidence-based strategies to address reasons why students are not meeting expectations
- evaluating the effectiveness of the plan (or student response to instruction/intervention)
Multi-Tiered Instruction and Intervention
Based on data, information, and decisions made in the Data-Based Problem Solving process, students can receive supports across all three tiers for both academics and behavior based on their individual needs. Tier 1 includes universal instruction and screening, Tier 2 provides targeted, data-driven and evidence-based interventions, and Tier 3 provides intensive, individual data-driven and evidence-based interventions. If students require intervention through Tier 2 and/or Tier 3, these interventions are always supplemental to strong Tier 1 instruction and support. That is, Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention does not replace Tier 1 instruction, but is provided in addition to it. See the individual pages on each of the Tiers for more information.
FLDOE Resource – Technical Assistance Paper on General Education intervention procedures; Describes problem-solving and response to intervention within MTSS framework to address varying student academic and behavioral needs